Because Zen is an Asian tradition, many of the words used in the practice environment are Japanese or, in some cases, Sanskrit. To give you a quick start with this vocabulary, we provide you with the following little glossary of terms you’re likely to hear around the Zendo.
Ango. “Dwelling in Peace”; intensive training period usually lasting three months.
Bodhisattva. Literally “Enlightened Being.” Bodhisattvas compassionately put helping others to be enlightened ahead of their own enlightenment.
Dana. Giving. Gratitude. Often expressed by donation of money to a Zen center.
Dharma. The Teaching of the Buddha, or more generally, the universal law or truth.
Gakki. Memorial service for important teacher in the lineage.
Gassho. Hand position with the palms of the hands pressed together; the tips of the fingertips should be about one hand’s width from the lips. Thumbs are against the side of the index fingers. No space between the hands means no space between our life and the life of the Buddha.
Hanamatsurai. Jap. “Flower Festival.” Traditional Zen and secular holiday ostensibly commemorating the birth of the historical Buddha. Celebrated in April or May, depending on the nation. (Compare Theravadin celebration of Vesak.)
Jukai. Receiving the precepts ceremony. This ceremony formally marks one’s conversion to the Zen Buddhist path.
Kinhin. Walking meditation. The mind is absorbed in the activity of walking.
Koan. Literally “public document,” the short, recorded exchanges that occurred between students and their masters in ancient China. Zen teachers (especially, but not exclusively, in the Rinzai sect) give koans to their students as objects of meditation to help them go beyond discriminative, conceptual understanding to a more direct, experiential wisdom. (Students at Great Wave Zen Sangha may engage in koan practice with Gendo Sensei.)
Mudra. Hand gesture or position. The position of the hands changes depending on what type of meditation or activity is being carried out.
Rohatsu. December 8, the day on which the Zen tradition commemorates the enlightenment, or nirvana, of the Buddha.
Sangha. Congregation of Buddhist practitioners, or more generally, the harmony of the Buddha and Dharma treasures.
Seiza. A traditional Japanese sitting posture in which one sits on one’s shins, knees together, ankles under the buttocks.
Sensei. Literally “teacher.” Generally, the title of one who has received Shiho, or Dharma Transmission. The title Sensei indicates that one is authorized to independently teach Zen, hold daisan, give Jukai, conduct the Tokudo ceremony, and perform Dharma Transmission (Shiho).
Sesshin. Literally “Gathering of Mind.” An extended and intensive meditation retreat, varying in length from two or three days to one week.
Shashu. Common mudra for kinhin. Formed by making a fist with the left hand, thumb inside. The fist is held over the heart, and the right hand is held over the left. Forearms are parallel with the floor.
Shiho. Dharma transmission. The ceremony by which a teacher affirms that a disciple’s training is complete and that he or she is authorized to independently teach the Dharma.
Zafu. Small circular cushion upon which practitioners sit when meditating.
Zendo. The Zen meditation hall.